More Than You Ever Wanted to Know About the Permanent Magnet Industry
Attend this comprehensive presentation overviewing a unique resource for anyone involved or interested in the global permanent magnet industry. This presentation includes an overview of the today’s global permanent magnet industry, with a focus on recent trends in North America. Also identifies how to easily learn about the primary world-wide industry players and offers clarification regarding a number of interesting, yet incorrect, perceptions regarding the magnet industry. This presentation includes an overview of the many applications where magnets can be utilized, an update regarding China’s overall impact on the industry, plus identification of other very important industry resources and references.
Walter Benecki, President, Walter T. Benecki LLC
Panel Discussion: How Should the Permanent Magnet Industry Prepare for the Future
With the current low rare earth prices and the worldwide glut of magnet plants, it would be easy for people who make or use magnets to imagine that there is no chance for a future raw material price spike or increase. Consequently, permanent magnet prices are low for the long term. This may sow the seeds for the next crisis: no investment today means eventual shortages tomorrow. This panel will explore some of the things that we might do while these business conditions persist, such as improve recycling pathways, optimize magnetic designs, improve pricing indices, include clearly defined provisions for potential raw material price spikes in quotations and interact with on-going research projects.
Moderator: Stan Trout, President, Spontaneous Materials
Walter Benecki, President, Walter T. Benecki LLC
Alex King, Director, Critical Materials Institute
Peter Afiuny, Executive Vice President, Urban Mining Company
Michael Walmer, CEO, Electron Energy Corporation
Scott Struven, Sr. Mgr. Sales and Engineering, Hitachi Metals
Recent Development and Market Outlook for Nd-Fe-B Magnets
Nd-Fe-B magnets has found a wide variety of applications in aerospace, medical, semiconductor, telecommunications, power generation, oil & gas exploration and automotive industries. There have been many new developments in recent years including high energy Nd-Fe-B grades, heavy rare earth free high intrinsic coecivity Nd-Fe-B grades, radially oriented anisotropic rings, and improved manufacturing processes. Nd-Fe-B market also faces a lot of challenges and opportunities in recent years including volatile raw materials market, overcapacity problems in China and patent issues. This presentation will cover some of the recent technical advances and provide a market outlook for Nd-Fe-B magnets.
Jinfang Liu, Chief Operating Officer, Electron Energy Corp.
The Use of Low Weight High Torque Permanent Magnet Brushless Motors in Commercial Drone Applications
The use of commercial delivery drones has raised a requirement for low weight high torque motors. As the use of drones expands into applications that carry loads for various purposes, the overall weight capacity of the drone will become a very important issue. One way to improve the weight capacity will be to decrease the weight of the actual drone. The drone body can be made of low weight high strength materials so the weight reduction possibilities will be in the areas of the batteries and the motors used in the drones. This presentation will provide a case study of a permanent magnet brushless motor for a small commercial delivery drone. The motor size will be 2 inches long and 1.8 inches in diameter. The major requirement will be to achieve is a flat speed torque so that there is not a large variation in the rotor speed between the delivery with a full load and the return with no load. Another requirement is the need to keep the motor weight as small as possible to maximize the drone load capacity. Low winding resistance will keep the torque curve flat and also maximize the torque capability. The easiest way to keep the resistance low is to increase the volume of copper in the winding, however this will also increase the motor weight. The methods and tradeoffs used to get a high torque to weight ratio with a flat speed torque curve for this motor will be discussed in this presentation.
Lowell Christensen, Consultant, Lowell Christensen LLC
Eddy Current Detection of Mechanical Faults in Permanent Magnets and in Magnet Blanks Prior to Magnetization
Eddy current testing is a non-destructive testing method that uses electromagnetism principles. Eddy currents are generated in the tested material by a primary excitation coil. Inhomogeneities, changes in thickness of tested parts, or defects such as cracking interrupt or alter the amplitude and pattern of the eddy current, resulting in magnetic field changes that can be measured by receiver coil(s) of the eddy-current probe. State-of-the-art 3D Magnetic Field Mappers allow a seamless integration of the eddy-current systems. 3-axes Hall probes used for the magnetic field mapping around permanent magnets or electromagnets can be easily exchanged with an eddy-current probe for detection of mechanical faults in permanent magnets or in magnet blanks prior to its magnetization.
Ian Walker, Senior Applications Engineer, GMW
What’s New in Materials, Applications and Patents
The latest developments in Dy-diffused high temperature NdFeB grades, NdFeB radially oriented rings, Fe16N2, higher energy product bonded magnets and 3D printing will be discussed. An update on the permanent magnet market and application drivers together with the history and latest status of the Hitachi Metals patent litigation will be presented. Magnetic refrigeration systems (MRS) based on the magnetocalorific effect have the potential to be a major new application area for magnetic materials. The recent announcement of a commercial MRS refrigeration display case will be discussed.
Dr. John Ormerod. Senior Technology Advisor, Magnet Applications, Inc.
Current State of NdFeB Magnets in China and What it Means to Designers
This presentation will examine NdFeB materials available currently from China. The emphasis will be on how these materials can best be used by designers of magnetic systems. We will examine the range of materials available commercially and those in development, as well as how to avoid common pitfalls encountered when using the newest materials. We will also discuss the economic impact and potential opportunities when designing around these materials.
Randy Callihan, Vice President of Technology, Thinova Magnet Co
High-Energy Neodymium Magnets for Modern Nondestructive Testing Transducers
During the last 10 years, the energy of commercially available Neodymium permanent magnets has increased substantially, from 30 to 40 MGsOe to 60 and more. This presentation describes two cases when stronger magnets resulted in higher sensitivity and resolution of nondestructive test sensors. The first is EMAT (Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer) for thickness measurement in boiler tubes. Previous sensors relied on magnetostriction, thus needed corrosive scale on tubes to transmit the ultrasonic wave through the tube wall. Stronger magnets made it possible to induce the wave by Lorentz Force mode allowing testing of clean, uncorroded tubes. The other example shows magnetic flux leakage sensors for ferromagnetic tube inspection in heat exchangers where new magnets allowed for testing of thicker wall tubes.
Marek Bergander, President, Magnetic Development, Inc.
Injection Molded Permanent Magnets: Pros and Cons
The presentation will give a detailed overview over injection molded permanent magnets, which will include aspects such as magnetic performance, composition, geometry, combinability, manufacturing and design. The advantages and disadvantages of these sorts of magnets will be explained in-depth by examples both for sensor and for motor applications. Advantages of injection molded magnets are definitely their large variety of field distributions, their easy combinability und the nearly unlimited diversity of geometric shapes. Drawbacks of such magnets are their limited mechanical and temperature stability and definitely their reduced magnetic strength. Alongside highlighting the pros, attempts and future prospects to solve stability and strength issues or issues like field distortions will be presented. Although fairly reliable methods for managing the design of injection molded magnets have been evolved during the last decades, also here limitations can still be observed and will be explained in the talk.
Thomas Schliesch, Head of Research & Development, Max Baermann GmbH
3-Axis Magnetometer on a Chip
3-Axis Hall magnetometers are traditionally top-of-the-line instruments: complex, bulky and expensive. A new magnetometer on a chip changes all that, allowing a sophisticated magnetometer to be embedded in custom circuitry. In particular, it is now feasible to build customized magnetic field mappers consisting of arrays of 3-axis sensors. Such field mappers have applications in industry, for example quality control for magnetron sputtering systems, as well as research, for example characterization of large accelerator magnets.
Philip Keller, Marketing & Product Management, Metrolab Technology SA
Microstructure and Mechanism of Coercivity Enhancement of Sintered Nd-Fe-B Magnet by Grain Boundary Diffusion
In this presentation, the microstructure and the mechanism of coercivity enhancement of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets prepared by the grain boundary diffusion (GBD) technique with TbH3 and Tb4O7 mixtures was studied. The addition of TbH3 can effectively enhance the diffusion of the Tb element compared to Tb4O7. Further analysis suggests that TbH3 can be decomposed into hydrogen and Tb during the heat treatment process, the hydrogen can optimize diffusion atmosphere and may enhance the diffusion effect. The relationship between magnetic properties and crystal lattice of these magnets were systematically studied. The investigation shows that the Tb element diffuses into the 2:14:1 phase from the grain boundary phase.
Yong Ding, Research and Development Center, Ningbo Yunsheng Co.
Injection Bonded Rare Earth: Transition Metals Anisotropic Magnets
SmFeN has been known for more than 15 years, though not many applications are found despite promising magnetic properties compared to NdFeB. The aim of this presentation is to make an overview of the material’s properties for automotive application comparing Sm-Fe-N and Nd-Fe-B anisotropic magnetic materials used for injection moulding. In conclusions some major technological differences between both materials, anisotropic NdFeB (HDDR type) and anisotropic Sm-Fe-N will be drawn.
Boris Saje, Application Engineer, Kolektor Magnet Technology GmbH
Design Techniques for Improving Efficiency and Reducing Weight of Three-Phase Transformers
Three phase transformers are commonly used for powering DC Brushless Motors from 3-phase, alternating current power systems. The power transformer is a key component of the conversion system. Its design is critical to reducing power dissipation and weight of the motor driver. Minimalizing power dissipation is driven by energy cost; transformer weight correlates directly with the motor driver cost. The presentation defines and reviews 3-phase transformer design techniques critical to achieving lower weight and higher efficiency of motor driver designs. Practical selections of transformer topology are reviewed. Impact of transformer core and winding designs on the transformer efficiency and weight are provided. Contribution of each critical design parameter is quantified.
Kaz Furmanczyk, Principal Engineer, Crane Aerospace & Electronics
Permanent Magnets Produced by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing
Permanent magnets are a key component of electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles and represent a significant proportion of their total cost. Actual fabrication techniques involve complex and costly assembly steps reducing the motor design flexibility. This contribution will focus on the fabrication of metal-NdFeB composite permanent magnets made using cold spray additive manufacturing. In order to tailor the magnetic, thermal and mechanical properties, coatings’ microstructure was varied using powder mixture with various compositions, size distributions and morphologies. The obtained magnetic, thermal and mechanical properties results demonstrate the feasibility of using cold spray additive manufacturing as an effective technology to fabricate rotor parts without additional assembly steps.
Fabrice Bernier, Research Officer, National Research Council Canada
Dynamic Imaging of the Magnetic Field with Both Hall and Magneto-Optical Sensors
With an increasing number of applications using some kind of magnetic feature both the sensing and the visualization of magnetic fields have become more important. While the sensing is often done with a minimal set-up, the spatial distribution of a magnetic field is harder to analyze and mostly requires scanning techniques. Matesy provides solutions due to its unique magneto-optical devices with great geometrical resolution that can measure directly at a magnets surface. We have also developed a magnetic field camera containing 3D-Hall sensors to visualize and measure magnetic fields of various set-ups with field strengths up to 1 T.
Matthias Schmidt, Research Associate, MATESY GmbH
New Copper Alloy with Tailorable Magnetic Behavior
A novel, copper-based alloy family has been developed which demonstrates good strength and workability while exhibiting tailorable magnetic performance; an unusual combination of properties for a copper alloy. Development has emphasized establishing processing parameters for the production of demonstration quantities of rod, bar, plate, strip, foil, and wire. This presentation will focus on metallurgical issues and overall hardening response of the copper alloys. The property and microstructural response to heat treatment will be shown, including both mechanical and magnetic properties. Microstructural examination indicates the presence of unique phases believed to enhance the magnetism and strength. A theory on the unusual magnetic behavior will be presented.
Amy Craft, Principal Scientist, Materion
Magnetization of Various Workpieces
Some workpieces require special magnetizing solutions. Rotors can be magnetized in one shot or stepwise pole by pole or even stepwise on one pole. Some sensor or actuator applications have embedded coils which could be damaged during the magnetizing process. Loudspeakers usually contain a lot of soft magnetic material which can produce strong eddy-currents and forces. Some aims of the magnetization, like long pulses and short cycle-time, are conflictive. The different aspects of magnetization are summarized and general rules are pointed out.
James Murphy, North America Sales Director, MAGSYS magnet systems
Rare Earth Magnets: Where Do We Go from Here?
A chance encounter of a Molybdenum corporation sales person and Prof.Wallace of University of Pittsburgh in late 1950 resulted in the development of number of rare earth intermetallics with nickel, cobalt including Samarium Cobalt-SmCo5. Magnetic and structural properties were well established by Wallace Group in early 1960. Rare earth -cobalt, Rare earth-iron-boron dominate today’s permanent magnet market. Necessity is mother of invention. The cobalt crisis resulted in the development cobalt free magnets. Now we have raw material resource concentration in certain geographical areas that could threaten the market stability. Critical raw material and national security is constantly being addressed. Material scientists have an opportunity to come through again. Iron, Cobalt, nickel and manganese are the elements that will constitute magnets, all to different amount. To develop anisotropy these elements, need to be combined with other elements to generate lower symmetry crystal structure. So far we have combined them with rare-earths. Use of other elements such as nitrogen, nanostructure materials, and metastable materials are developing. The heavy rare earths have a chance to dominate rare earth magnets if the magnetic coupling can be reversed. Electric vehicles are coming on stream as demand for greener energy grows. The motors require higher energy magnets and the need for more powerful magnets continues. This presentation will detail the challenges facing these alternate materials and possible resurgence or dominance by USA in the permanent magnet field.
Sim Narasimhan, Vice President, P2P Technologies
Evaluating Magnetic Materials on Brushless PM Motor Performance
One of the major potential challenges for simulating motor designs is the impact of stator lamination materials on motor performance. There are a number of variables in selecting magnetic materials for use in a brushless PM motor design. A first quadrant magnetizing curve and a core loss curve are needed from the steel foundry. The second curve involves core loss versus iron member weight at different excitation frequencies. Both curves must be loaded individually into the SPEED based material files. Stator and Rotor lamination thicknesses, unit flux density, and specific magnetic material also impacts motor saturation and core losses. CD Adapco’s SPEED-PC BDC design simulation program will be used to illustrate the performance impact of these various materials on overall motor performance.
Dan Jones, President, Incremotion Associates
Recycled Sintered NdFeB Production and its Use in Commercial Applications
The properties associated with NdFeB-based permanent magnets are strongly related to composition and microstructure. Modern applications are pushing the limits of the properties associated with conventional NdFeB-based permanent magnets; for example the desire to operate permanent magnet machines at elevated temperatures. World demand for NdFeB-based magnets is growing and the supply chain is complex, this demand may be alleviated in part by producing recycled sintered NdFeB magnets from feedstock recovered from end of life applications. The advent of Urban Mining Company’s Magnet-to-Magnet Recycling and Grain Boundary Engineering process has made it possible to introduce recycled NdFeB magnets in commercial applications.
Peter Afiuny, Executive Vice President, Urban Mining Company
Corrosion Protection of Nd-Fe-B Magnets using Electroplated Nano-Aluminum Coatings
A novel technique for electroplating of nano-aluminum coatings has been developed and applied to Nd-Fe-B magnets in place of traditional electroplated nickel and copper coatings. Aluminum cannot be electroplated from traditional aqueous electrolytes so aluminum deposition has traditionally relied on expensive vacuum techniques, such as IVD, or hazardous plating methods. We will present results from our work depositing nano-aluminum coatings from ionic liquid electrolytes using established electroplating techniques. The resulting coatings are non-magnetic, hard, durable, adherent, thinner and exhibit corrosion and thermal shock performance better than traditional electroplated coatings.
Bob Hilty, Vice President of Research & Development, Xtalic Corp.